临桂| 绥芬河| 番禺| 洛川| 界首| 共和| 随州| 阳朔| 靖宇| 枣强| 壶关| 泰州| 嘉峪关| 玛沁| 海晏| 宜春| 阿坝| 荔波| 镇沅| 阿克苏| 吉木乃| 文登| 河曲| 佛山| 宜川| 仪征| 邯郸| 临桂| 分宜| 金山屯| 鹰潭| 定陶| 玉树| 云集镇| 萝北| 轮台| 凤庆| 襄樊| 建宁| 武威| 望奎| 老河口| 临沧| 马祖| 祥云| 歙县| 隆安| 茂名| 新青| 金湖| 昭觉| 防城区| 改则| 龙州| 于田| 元谋| 大庆| 楚州| 新洲| 哈密| 抚州| 化州| 乃东| 长泰| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 梧州| 根河| 七台河| 维西| 瓯海| 双柏| 内江| 邵武| 麦积| 宜丰| 马龙| 开平| 易门| 丹寨| 涪陵| 荆州| 德州| 承德县| 长安| 屏山| 建昌| 左贡| 府谷| 扬中| 湟源| 博野| 晋宁| 阆中| 道真| 宁远| 琼山| 肃宁| 米脂| 科尔沁右翼中旗| 饶河| 长白| 丘北| 荣昌| 天等| 盐田| 巴塘| 河源| 阜新蒙古族自治县| 甘棠镇| 滁州| 上饶县| 云溪| 汾阳| 冷水江| 鄂尔多斯| 尼玛| 丰都| 南充| 哈尔滨| 夏津| 吴江| 南溪| 海阳| 绥江| 兴城| 礼县| 凤阳| 七台河| 延长| 西林| 阳朔| 五寨| 彭山| 崇义| 平凉| 措勤| 霍山| 商水| 临潼| 两当| 泰和| 蓝山| 洪江| 栾城| 久治| 天水| 连城| 赞皇| 昌图| 定襄| 吉县| 南城| 乐山| 黄龙| 长葛| 武安| 天池| 科尔沁左翼中旗| 深州| 都安| 略阳| 绥宁| 新洲| 达日| 保定| 云阳| 铁力| 勐腊| 大田| 临西| 苏尼特右旗| 千阳| 汶上| 宜良| 长子| 巴林左旗| 那曲| 烈山| 越西| 青白江| 商河| 保康| 龙游| 通化市| 香格里拉| 连南| 开县| 上犹| 商南| 南海| 河池| 沧州| 酉阳| 石屏| 海门| 印台| 察哈尔右翼后旗| 浪卡子| 天峨| 新竹县| 兴海| 铜梁| 鄂伦春自治旗| 双城| 罗田| 阿鲁科尔沁旗| 略阳| 镇康| 河津| 济南| 齐河| 天全| 岗巴| 阿拉善左旗| 保山| 乌拉特前旗| 方正| 攸县| 吉县| 曲靖| 南丰| 雅江| 阳曲| 新宾| 西沙岛| 措勤| 王益| 陇川| 肥乡| 松滋| 海安| 甘德| 安庆| 丹寨| 路桥| 任县| 丘北| 四方台| 新宾| 伊通| 义马| 荣昌| 九台| 兴国| 泸定| 玉门| 察哈尔右翼前旗| 聂荣| 宾县| 桂林| 德格| 天津| 洛南| 乃东| 八一镇| 西山| 华亭| 新乐| 阜新市| 衢江| 商都| 麻城| 中宁|

特里催泪告别信:切尔西和球迷就是我整个世界

2019-05-19 14:17 来源:今晚报

  特里催泪告别信:切尔西和球迷就是我整个世界

  TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)ExamineestakeaselfiewiththeirfamilybeforethenationalcollegeentranceexaminationoutsideanexamvenueinChangchun,northeastChinasJilinProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LinHong),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan),eastChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/XuXiaoxuan)ExamineesprepareforthenationalcollegeentranceexaminationoutsidetheexamvenueatFenyangHighSchoolinLyuliangCity,northChinasShanxiProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/CaoYang)ExamineesenteranexamvenueinChangchun,northeastChinasJilinProvince,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/LinHong),capitalofChina,June7,mination,whichtakesplacefromJune7to8.(Xinhua/ShenBohan)

PolandsRobertLewandowski(2ndL)attendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)PolandsRobertLewandowskiattendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)FrancesPaulPogba(1stL)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesOlivierGiroud(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesAntoineGriezmann(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappeattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesPaulPogba(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesgoalkeeperHugoLlorisattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappeattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappe(R)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesplayersattendatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)AdamNawalka(C),headcoachofPoland,talkstotheplayersduringatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)PolandsRobertLewandowski(LFront)attendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)Ajournalistasksforinformationatthemediacenterforthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]LiGuangda,avolunteeratthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganizationSummit,saidhehasreceivedmanythumbs-upfromforeignreportersforhisprofessionalandfriendlyassistancesincehebeganservingattheinformationdeskofthesummitsmediacenter."It,,"saidt,000studentvolunteersrecruitedfrom10universitiesinthecoastalcity,,another18,000volunte,theyarenicknamed"littleseasplashes".Theyhavebeenmobilizedtooffervariousservicesforthesummit,suchasassistancetoguestswitharrivalanddeparture,ionSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]Li,anundergraduatemajoringinEnglish,,000studentsappliedtobecomevolunteersforthesummit,accordingtothemeetingsorganizingcommittee."Theenthusiasmfromstudentsisbeyondourexpectations,"saidSunJian,whoworksforthecommitteesworkinggroupofvolunteers."Wevechosentheoneswithbetterexpertisethatisparticularlyhelpfulforthesummit,suchasstudentsmajoringinforeignlanguagesandcomputers."Eachvolunteerhasreceivedabout40hoursoftrainingbeforethesummit,hesaid."Besideslessonsonetiquette,weveinvitedexpertsfromtheMinistryofForeignAffairstogivethevolunteerslecturesonhowtheSCOworksandthetraditionsofthecountriesparticipatinginthesummit."LihasbeenaboutQingdao,becausetheyaretheonesthereportersgotofirstiftheyhavequestions,ionSummitinQingdao,Shandongprovince,onFriday.[PhotobyFengYongbin/ChinaDaily]"Itsanhonortobepartofsuchanimportantevent,"headded."WejustwanttoleavetheguestsandreporterswithagoodimpressionofQingdaoandtheChinesepeople."Moreimportant,Ialsofindjoyinmeetingpeoplefromdifferentcountries,whichhasbroadenedmyviews,",ateacherfromOceanUniversityofChinaandavolunteerorganizer,saiditsnotaneasyjobtomaintainagoodpostureandgreetpeoplewithasmilealldaylong,aswellasofferusefulandprofessionalassistance."Thestudentstoldmethattheyenjoytheworkbecausetheygenuinelywanttoofferthebestservice,"shesaid."Improudofthem."

  AsoldierfromtheGurkhaunitisondutytoensurethesecurityfortheupcomingTrump-KimsummitinSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)DPRKleadune12attheCapellaHotelonSentosaIsland,(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)PolicegatheroutsidetheIstana,theofficialresidenceandofficeofthePresidentofSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)AsoldierfromtheGurkhaunitisondutytoensurethesecurityfortheupcomingTrump-KimsummitinSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)DPRKleadune12attheCapellaHotelonSentosaIsland,(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)(Photo:YangSheng/GT)PolicegatheroutsidetheIstana,theofficialresidenceandofficeofthePresidentofSingaporeonSunday.(Photo:YangSheng/GT)

  HungHsiu-chu(front,C),formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,formerchairwomanofKuomintanginTaiwan,leadsadelegationtopayhomagetodeceasedsoldiersoftheChineseExpeditionaryForcewhodiedwhilefightingtheJapanesearmyinWorldWarIIinMyanmar,atamartyrscemeteryinTengchongCounty,SouthwestChinasYunnanProvince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,theformerchairwomanoftheKuomintanginTaiwan,visitstheWesternYunnanWarofResistanceagainstJapaneseAggressionMemorialinTengchongCounty,Yunnanprovince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)HungHsiu-chu,theformerchairwomanoftheKuomintanginTaiwan,visitstheWesternYunnanWarofResistanceagainstJapaneseAggressionMemorialinTengchongCounty,Yunnanprovince,June11,2018.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/LiuRanyang)Amidstcontroversiesoverthe2015internationalnucleardeal,Iransrecentdecisiontopreparegroundsforboos,,alsoknownastheJointComprehensivePlanofAction(JCPOA),claimingitdidnotaddressIransballisticmissileprogram,itsnuclearactivitiesbeyond2025,deal,topressureIranforrenegotiationofthedealseekingtoaddresswhathehascalledtheir"commonconcerns."Currently,IranisnegotiatingwiththeEuropeancountriesonpreservingtheJCPOA,,,Britain,France,GermanyplustheEuropeanUnion,have,sofar,reiteratedtheircommitmen,IranssupremeleaderAyatollahAliKhameneionMondaysaidthatitseems"someEuropeangovernmentsexpecttheIraniannationtobothputupwithsanctionsandgiveupitsnuclearactivities."TheIranianleadersaidIranwouldnottoleratesanctionsnorundergo"nuclearausterity."HeorderedtheheadofAtomicEnergyOrganizationofIran(AEOI)toimmediatelypreparethegroundfortheuraniumenrichment"uptoalevelof190,000SWU(separativeworkunits)forthetimebeingwithintheframeworkofthenucleardeal."SWUisthestandardmeasureoftheeff,,sdecree,AliAkbarSalehi,headoftheAEOI,saidTuesdaythatthepreparationworkbeganatIransNatanzenrichmentfacility,observingthecountryscommitmentsto2015nucleardeal."Yesterday,wetookthefirststepandsubmittedalettertotheInternationalAtomicEnergyAgency(IAEA),",thespokespersonfortheAEOIBehrouzKamalvandisaidTuesdaythattheorganizationwillinformtheIAEAofthestartoftheprocesstoincreasethecapacitytoproduceuraniumhexafluoride(UF6),,Iranwassupposedtoachieveanenrichmentcapacityofatleast190,000SWU,FrenchPresidentEmmanuelMacrononTuesdaywarnedoftheriskofrisingtensionsduetotheIraniannuclearstand-off,urging"everyonetostabilizethesituationandnotgiveintothisescalationwhichwouldleadtoonlyonething:conflict."Meanwhile,FrenchForeignMinisterJeanYvesLeDrianwarnedIranonWednesdaythatitsplantoincreaseuraniumenrichmentcapacitymighthavedangerousconsequences."Thisinitiative(ofIran),"LeDriansaid."Iftheygotoahigherlevelthen,yes,theagreementwouldbeviolated,buttheyneedtorealizethatiftheydothentheywillexposethemselvestonewsanctionsandtheEuropeanswillnotremainpassive,",LeDriancalledfora"globalnegotiationframework"ontheIranianissue,atthesametimemaintainingthe2015nucleardeal,whichhecalled"astepforward"inpreventingIranfromhavingaccesstonuclearweapons."TheIraniansmustrealizeth,todaytheagreementisnotbrokenandIranfullyrespectsitscommitments,""positiveresults"ofthecountrysongoingnegotiationswiththeEuropeanparties,seekingtopreserveTehranseconomicinterestssubjecttonucleardeal."TheprospectofthetalkswiththeEuropeansshowsthatthesituationisnotpromising,"SpokespersonoftheIranianParliamentsNationalSecurts,sdecision,TehranhasthreatenedintheeventthatotherpartiestothenucleardealcouldnotsafeguardIransinterestsundertheaccord,eforTehranlimitingitsnuclearprogram.

FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)FirefightingauthoritiesinChangchunCity,NortheastChina’sJ,assistedbysearchdogsandadvanceddevices,testedtheirknowledgeandskillsinquakeemergencyresponsesthroughdifferentscenarios,suchasremovingbuildingdebriswithmachines.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/MaXuewen)

  PolandsRobertLewandowski(2ndL)attendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)PolandsRobertLewandowskiattendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)FrancesPaulPogba(1stL)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesOlivierGiroud(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesAntoineGriezmann(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappeattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesPaulPogba(L)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesgoalkeeperHugoLlorisattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappeattendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesKylianMbappe(R)attendsatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)FrancesplayersattendatrainingsessionaheadoftheRussia2018WorldCupinMoscow,Russia,June11,2018.(Xinhua/WuZhuang)AdamNawalka(C),headcoachofPoland,talkstotheplayersduringatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)PolandsRobertLewandowski(LFront)attendsatrainingsessionaheadofthe2018RussiaWorldCup,inWarsaw,Poland,onJune11,2018.(Xinhua/MaciejGillert)

  VolunteerscleanwasteonbeachinDongshanCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/SongWeiwei)VolunteersfreefriesinSanya,southChinasHainanProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ChenWenwu)MembersofChinasAntarcticexpeditionputamicroplasticcollectorintothesea,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/BaiGuolong)CleanersclearthefloatingwasteinthefishbreedingraftsinHuangqiTownshipofLianjiangCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,June6,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)ChinasmannedsubmersibleJiaolongispreparedtodiveintheYapTrenchinthewestPacific,June13,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiuShiping)PearlcultivatorstransfershellsatapearlcultivationfarminBeihaiCity,southChinasGuangxiZhuangAutonomousRegion,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/ZhangAilin)AlittlegirlstaysatacampinQingdaoHaichangPolarOceanParkinQingdao,acoastalcityineastChinasShandongProvince,May19,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)AseaweedharvestboatsailsataseaweedfarminSanshaTownshipinXiapuCounty,southeastChinasFujianProvince,,,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangKehong),2018showsthesceneryofXinyingmangrovenationalwetlandparkinsouthChina,aUN-designateddayheldannuallyonJune8,aimstoarousepeoplesconsciousnesstopreserveoceansonEarth.(Xinhua/JiangEnyu)AdogincostumeplayswithaballduringacontestwiththethemeofFIFAWorldCupinLima,Peru,onJune10,2018.(Xinhua/LuisCamacho)AwomaninteractswithherdogduringacontestwiththethemeofFIFAWorldCupinLima,Peru,onJune10,2018.(Xinhua/LuisCamacho)AwomaninteractswithherdogduringacontestwiththethemeofFIFAWorldCupinLima,Peru,onJune10,2018.(Xinhua/LuisCamacho)DogsincostumeareseenduringacontestwiththethemeofFIFAWorldCupinLima,Peru,onJune10,2018.(Xinhua/LuisCamacho)

  PublichealthworkerssprayinsecticideamidfearsofanewcholeraoutbreakinSanaa,Yemen,June7,’srainyseasonwilllikelytriggeranotherwaveofcholera,puttingmillionsatriskinthewar-torncountry,whichisstillreelingfromoneoftheworld’sworstoutbreaksofthekillerdisease,scientistswarnedinMay.(Photo/Agencies)PublichealthworkerssprayinsecticideamidfearsofanewcholeraoutbreakinSanaa,Yemen,June7,’srainyseasonwilllikelytriggeranotherwaveofcholera,puttingmillionsatriskinthewar-torncountry,whichisstillreelingfromoneoftheworld’sworstoutbreaksofthekillerdisease,scientistswarnedinMay.(Photo/Agencies)PublichealthworkerssprayinsecticideamidfearsofanewcholeraoutbreakinSanaa,Yemen,June7,’srainyseasonwilllikelytriggeranotherwaveofcholera,puttingmillionsatriskinthewar-torncountry,whichisstillreelingfromoneoftheworld’sworstoutbreaksofthekillerdisease,scientistswarnedinMay.(Photo/Agencies)

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  PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornlastyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsagiantpandabornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplaysonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)PhototakenonJune10,2018showsgiantpandasbornthisyearattheChinaConservationandResearchCenterfortheGiantPandaplayonasunnyday.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/AnYuan)

  TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)TheSoyuzMS-09spacecra,AlexanderGerstofGermanyandcosmonautSergeyProkopyevofRussiablastsofftotheInternationalSpaceStation(ISS)fromthelaunchpadattheBaikonurCosmodrome,Kazakhstan,June6,2018.(Photo/Agencies)

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桃花坞木版年画里的康乾盛世:藏着一座繁华的姑苏城

ChinesePresidentXiJinping(C)andotherleadersattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitposeforagroupphotoaheadofabanquetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/DingLin)ChinesePresidentXiJinpingaddressesabanquetheldforguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/XieHuanchi)ChinesePresidentXiJinping(C,front)andguestsattendingthe18thShanghaiCooperationOrganization(SCO)summitheadforabanquetinQingdao,eastChinasShandongProvince,June9,2018.(Xinhua/LiXueren)


来源:光明日报

所谓“姑苏版”,是指清代康熙、雍正、乾隆时期苏州桃花坞木版年画全盛期的作品。此类作品着重描写苏州市民生活和城市景观,场面宏大、构图复杂、内容丰富、风格写实,运用成熟的套色技法体现出浓郁的民间气息,真实记录了“康乾盛世”时期苏州的城市风情世相。

 

美人闺房图 法国国家图书馆藏

【关注】  

苏州桃花坞木版年画具有极高的艺术价值,却长期不为世人重视。

2013年,受苏州美术馆馆长曹俊的委托,我开始策划“苏州桃花坞木版年画特展”。我最大的冲动是第一时间去寻觅散落在世界各地“姑苏版”的踪迹。凭借着国内外收藏苏州桃花坞木版年画的博物馆、美术馆、图书馆的同行们的鼎力相助,那些“远嫁”海内外的苏州桃花坞“姑苏版”木版年画,集体回“娘家”团圆了。

所谓“姑苏版”,是指清代康熙、雍正、乾隆时期苏州桃花坞木版年画全盛期的作品。此类作品着重描写苏州市民生活和城市景观,场面宏大、构图复杂、内容丰富、风格写实,运用成熟的套色技法体现出浓郁的民间气息,真实记录了“康乾盛世”时期苏州的城市风情世相。而其表现方法受到西方绘画的透视和比例的影响,艺术语言上集苏皖刻艺之长与铜版画排线法为一体。桃花坞木版年画绘制精美、色彩绚丽,画面远近分明、层次清晰。可以说,“姑苏版”乃苏州桃花坞木版年画艺术理念与艺术语言之巅峰,更是中国美术史上恢弘之篇章,享有“东方古艺之花”的美誉。

事实上,从“姑苏版”发展的历史上看,它从一个有趣的视角对应了中国近代经济发展的脉络。明代中期以后的戏曲和小说的版画插图,在我国版画史上占有重要地位。这一时期的雕版插图呈现出一片蓬勃的生气,其作品精工细作、韵味高雅,堪称精美绝伦。不但数量上远超过前代,而且雕镂工艺的绮丽程度也为后世所不及。尤其是万历至天启(1573—1627)的五十五年间,以戏曲和小说为主的版画插图,呈现出绚烂夺目的光彩,成为中国版画史上全盛的黄金时期。我国的刻书业自明世宗嘉靖以后,集于金陵、苏州、扬州、杭州、歙县等地,有关版画的插图,自然也以这几个地方为最精。例如苏州的书业堂、杭州的张氏白雪斋、金陵的唐氏富春堂等,都以刻图精美而著称。至明代后期,彩色套印法更臻于精美完善的境地,安徽歙县制墨家程君房和方千鲁均用彩色套印。

明清时期的江南已出现了资本主义萌芽,苏州则是发展最快的地区。早在明初,苏州地区的税赋便占全国的12%,加之又是中国河运及海上贸易的集散中心,自然成为全国经济之首要地带。苏州桃花坞木版年画的发展即依托于苏州地区繁荣发展的经济。由于苏州有较高的工资水平和相对较多的劳动机会,吸引了大批来自安徽、南京、扬州等地的刻工。明代江南地区的刻书业曾在全国遥遥领先,而苏州又汇集了当时江南最好的刻工和工艺,同时还掌握着河运海运两条交通要道,其货物品类之全、流通之广当为全国之最。《姑苏阊门图》上题词“万商云集在金阊,航海梯山来四方”,即说明了当时金阊地区商业的繁荣和对外贸易的兴盛。而对苏州刻书业的评价,“凡刻之地有三……其精吴为最,其多闽为最,越皆次之”一语足以蔽之。充足的从业人员和细致的分工,充分发展的造纸业和篆刻业以及精湛的技艺,都为桃花坞木版年画的生产创造了条件。

画工、刻工和印工分工协作,相互独立又紧密关联,三者统一于画铺之中。桃花坞鼎盛时期,拥有画铺五十余家,年产量达百万张。随着市民阶层的日渐崛起,文化娱乐方面的品质逐渐提升,人们的年节风俗文化日渐丰富,对年画的市场需求也大大增加。而海外贸易的发展,则让桃花坞木版年画远销到了日本、南洋等地。

山塘普济桥中秋月夜(局部) 神户市立博物馆藏

木版年画的技术起源于唐代雕版印刷,本质上是为满足人们文化需求的一种印刷、复制技术。印刷技术是中国对世界文明的一大重要贡献,它不仅在中国古代发挥着传承文化的作用,同时也影响着世界历史的进程。在印刷术问世以前,印章、石刻以及纸张的出现都为其奠定了一定的基础,魏晋南北朝时期拓片技术的发展更为后来雕版印刷的发明提供了直接经验。到了经济文化繁荣发展的唐代,文化交流十分频繁,佛教兴盛,科举制度推行,共同催生了雕版印刷术。至宋元时期,雕版技术不断完善,不仅丰富了传统印刷技术的种类,而且开始出现彩色印刷,雕版年画也大抵出现于宋。再至明清时期,套色技术及饾版技术(“饾”,音“豆”。“饾版”印刷,就是按照彩色绘画原稿的用色情况,经过勾描和分版,将每一种颜色都分别雕一块版,然后再依照“由浅到深,由淡到浓”的原则,逐色套印,最后完成一件近似于原作的彩色印刷品。——编辑注)的流行,也证明了传统印刷技术的创新与活力。可以说,雕版技术是传统印刷技术群的中坚力量,这些都为桃花坞木版年画的形成提供了技术上的前提条件。

清中期的苏州汇聚了江南之高手英才,艺术理念和艺术语言上则承宋元以来江南地区刻印艺术之大成,荟萃了康乾时期苏皖刻艺之精髓,吸收了西方铜版画排线法等语言,又经历了江南地区雕版、活字、木版水印等形式的洗礼,以饾版、拱花等多色套印技术集绘画、刻版、套印于一体,最终臻成“姑苏版”艺术之巅峰。

这次在苏州举行的“姑苏繁华录——苏州桃花坞木版年画特展”是一次具有历史意义的团圆。这些年画以其独有的艺术高度,记录了丰富的苏州历史人文面貌,对中国的文化历史研究有着重要的价值,并在人类文明史上留下了浓墨重彩的一笔。这一展览不但能让世人清楚地看出苏州桃花坞木版年画各个历史时期的文化追求与艺术样式,而且让世人站在世界美术历史的高度,领会她光辉灿烂的文化价值与历史意义。整个展览在新的视野与维度中提供了重读苏州桃花坞木版年画的契机。

近年来,苏州桃花坞木版年画作为国家非物质文化遗产受到了相应的保护,更凸显了其对当今和未来文化发展的重大启示意义。苏州桃花坞木版年画的艺术价值由此也得到了更多的关注与研究。今天,世人得以一睹苏州桃花坞木版年画的“真容”,这对其收藏、保护、研究、传承、交流和发展均有重要的意义。(作者系中国美术馆研究与策划部主任)

原标题:桃花坞木版年画:东方古艺之花

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